Several committees have been established for trade in goods, trade in services, rules of origin, trade policy measures, non-tariff barriers, technical barriers to trade, and health and plant health measures.  Dispute resolution rules and procedures are still being negotiated, but should also include the appointment of a dispute resolution authority.  The Committee of Senior Trade Officials implements the Council`s decisions. The Committee is responsible for the development of programmes and action plans for the implementation of the AfCFTA agreement.  Nigeria is Africa`s largest economy and has long been a regional leader, so observers, as they became bogged down, questioned the reality of the African trading bloc. The African superpower, Nigeria, has signed an agreement to strengthen trade between African countries. He added that the two countries are now at peace and that Eritrea has asked the AU to conclude the agreement with them. Nigeria was one of the last nations to sign the agreement. With a population of 200 million, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and has about 98 million inhabitants in the most populous countries, Ethiopia and Egypt. With a nominal GDP of $376 billion, or about 17% of Africa`s GDP, it is just ahead of South Africa, which accounts for 16% of the African economy. Given that Nigeria is such an important country in terms of population and economy, its absence at the first signing of the agreement was particularly striking.
South African President Cyril Ramaphosa highlighted this in his comments of 12 July 2018, commenting: “The continent awaits Nigeria and South Africa. Through trade between us, we are able to maintain more resources on the continent. South Africa signed the agreement later.  In March 2018, three separate agreements were signed at the 10th African Union Special Session on AfCFTA: the African Continental Free Trade Agreement, the Kigali Declaration; and the protocol on the free movement of people. The Protocol on the Free Movement of Persons aims to create a visa-free zone within AfCFTA countries and to support the creation of the African Union passport.  At the Kigali Summit on 21 March 2018, 44 countries signed the AfCFTA, 47 signed the Kigali Declaration and 30 signed the protocol on the free movement of persons. Although a success, there were two remarkable holdouts: Nigeria and South Africa, the two largest economies in Africa.    Beyond the effects of the pandemic, there is also the continent`s existing commercial architecture to overcome. Today`s regional trade agreements “show narrow trade patterns, depend on primary products and have a low level of intermediate trade,” said William Amponsah, a trade expert quoted by the United Nations.
In fact, intra-African trade is dominated by a handful of countries that sell a handful of products. Although this situation is improving, there remains a problem that a simple increase in intra-African trade would not solve. The agreement was negotiated by the African Union (AU) and signed on 21 March 2018 by 44 of its 55 member states in Kigali, Rwanda.   The agreement first requires members to remove tariffs on 90% of goods, allowing free access to goods, goods and services across the continent.  The UN Economic Commission for Africa estimates that the agreement will boost intra-African trade by 52% by 2022.  The proposal is expected to enter into force 30 days after ratification by 22 of the signatory states.  On 2 April 2019, The Gambia became the 22nd state to ratify the Convention and on 29 April, the Sahrawi Republic tabled the 22nd filing of ratification instruments; The agreement entered into force on 30 May and entered its operational phase following a summit on 7 July 2019.  In order to facilitate the implementation of the free trade area, the following institutions were created.