Repatriation Agreements

Similar agreements will be signed this year for the return of 193,000 Angolans to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), 16,000 from the Republic of Congo and 10,000 from South Africa. An estimated 50,000 Angolan refugees live outside Africa. Angolans are one of the longest havens in the world. UNHCR had attempted to begin the repatriation of the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), Zambia and Namibia, but the projects were frightened when the 1992 and 1995 ceasefires collapsed. Since a peace agreement reached last April between the Angolan government and the rebels of UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola), some 70,000 Angolans have reportedly returned spontaneously to Angola. Repatriation issues were some of the most debated political issues of the 20th and 21st centuries. Many of those who were pushed back by Allied forces to the Soviet Union during World War II still maintain this forced migration against the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The concept of repatriation has often been used by communist governments to describe large-scale state-sponsored ethnic cleansing operations and the movement of national groups. The Poles, born in territories annexed by the Soviet Union, although they were deported to the State of Poland, were settled in the former annexed German regions (designated in Polish as the reclaimed areas). They were told that they had returned to their metropolis. Thursday`s agreements form the legal framework for voluntary repatriation and contain provisions relating to tax exemption, amnesty, visits to villages of origin, transport, housing, family reunification and reintegration. Return of human remains to their home nation. In the United States, the human remains of Indians are discovered and removed from their graves as part of the process of building or developing the land or as part of archaeological excavations.

The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) of 1990 established the process in which Indian tribes and Hawaiian organizations recognized by the Confederacy may require federal authorities and institutions receiving federal funds to return culturally related human remains. NAGPRA also establishes provisions authorizing the provision of Native American human remains found on federal lands to the affiliated Indian tribe or the Hawaii Indian organization. NAGPRA does not apply to the Smithsonian Institution, which is covered by the provisions of the National Museum of the American Indian Act of 1989. In previous eras, it was customary for the British colonial authorities to gather heads and other body parts of indigenous peoples, such as the Australian Indians and the Maori, for the exhibition in British museums. The repatriation of these body parts is currently underway. You`ll find an example of successful body return under Yagan. Another example is the hard work of the Karanga Aotearoa Repatriation Programme, established in 2003 in partnership between the Maori and the New Zealand government. The program is run by the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (Te Papa) and has repatriated more than 350 remains of Meori and Moriori to New Zealand since 2003. Article 12 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples reaffirms that indigenous peoples have the right to recover their human remains. The declaration was adopted in September 2007 with the support of 143 countries. The four opposing countries – Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States – then approved the declaration.