The Paris Agreement is the first truly comprehensive commitment to the fight against the climate crisis. In 2015, 195 countries and the European Union signed a single comprehensive agreement to keep global warming well below 2 degrees Celsius – and to do everything in its power to exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius. The pioneering agreement was successful where previous attempts failed because each country set its own emission reduction targets and adopted its own strategies to achieve them. In addition, nations, inspired by the actions of local and regional governments, businesses and others, have recognized that the fight against climate change brings considerable socio-economic benefits. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century and to continue efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  From 30 November to 11 December 2015, France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the end of the United Nations Climate Change Conference (UN), one of the largest and most ambitious global meetings ever held. The goal was nothing less than a binding and universal agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2oC above the lower temperature levels set before the start of the industrial revolution. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements.
Although the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily monitor the progress of individual nations and promote a sense of overall group pressure, discouraging any towing of feet among countries that might consider it. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  The Kyoto Protocol was adopted. This is the world`s first agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which will come into force in 2005. The Paris Agreement, marked by the historic agreement once adopted, owes its success not only to the return of a framework favourable to climate change and sustainable development, but also to efforts to review the management of international climate negotiations. The Paris Agreement is supported by new initiatives that will all be adapted to the difficulties identified at the previous COP. This innovative approach is based on four elements: the adoption of a universal agreement.
Define each state`s national contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Although the text of the agreement does not mention the content of these contributions, it obliges signatory states to establish a contribution plan, implement it and raise amounts every five years.